By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Hermann D. Schubert MD
Presents an outline of the constitution and serve as of the retina and its courting to the pigment epithelium, choroid and vitreous. Describes the key vitreoretinal issues and applicable diagnostic tools and therapy principles.
In its final significant revision, part 12 used to be re-organized into 3 components. Separate chapters are actually dedicated to age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity, together with the most recent imaging ideas and choroidal aspect. chosen healing subject matters comprise laser treatment and vitreoretinal surgery.
Upon crowning glory of part 12, readers may be capable to:
Select applicable equipment of exam and ancillary reports for the prognosis of vitreoretinal disorders
Describe the foundations of clinical and surgical operation of vitreoretinal disorders
Incorporate information from significant potential scientific trials within the administration of chosen vitreoretinal issues
Read or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 12: Retina and Vitreous PDF
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Extra info for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 12: Retina and Vitreous
Ophthalmology. 1998;105(8):1564-1569. Hope- Ross M, Yannuzzi LA, Gragoudas ES, et al. Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green. Ophthalmology. 1994;101(3):529-533. Optical Coherence Tomography Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, noncontact imaging modality that produces micrometer-resolution, cross-sectional images of ocular tissue. OCT is based on imaging reflected light (Fig 2-3). The technique produces a 2-dimensional image of the backscattered light from different layers in the retina, analogous to ultrasonic B-scan and radar imaging.
Some pathologic conditions that autofluoresce are optic nerve drusen, and in Best disease, subretinal deposits from photoreceptor outer segments. The clinical use of fundus AF relies on the fact that the predominant source of autofluorescence in the macula is lipofuscin. When the RPE phagocytoses photoreceptor outer segments, which consist of retinoids, fatty acids, and proteins, lipofuscin accumulates as an oxidative by-product within the RPE cells. The pigment within lipofuscin that causes autofluorescence is A2E, named for its derivation from 2 molecules of vitamin A aldehyde and 1 molecule of ethanolamine.
Transillumination is another technique that may help highlight cystic changes of the neurosensory retina or help detect pigment epithelial detachments where the edge of the beam appears to glow. Red-free (green) light may be used to help detect small vessels (such as intraretinal microvascular abnormalities or retinal neovascularization) or dots of hemorrhage that may be difficult to see against an orange background when viewed with the normal slit beam. A lighter color to the retina with red-free light may correspond to the presence of fluid, fibrin, or fibrous tissue associated with CNV.