A Companion to World Philosophies by Eliot Deutsch, Ron Bontekoe PDF

By Eliot Deutsch, Ron Bontekoe

This impressive quantity deals scholars, lecturers and common readers a whole introductory survey of the most important non-western philosophical traditions.

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State Ideology and Syncretism The Confucianism that later triumphed in the Han dynasty (206 BCE 200 CE), however, was a tough-minded state ideology under the influence of Legalism. Historically, the Legalism of the brilliant scholar-official Han Fei (d. 233 BCE) grew out of Xunzi's Confucianism. Although Han Fei's intellectual genealogy could be traced to powerful statesmen such as Guan Zhong (d. 645 BCE) and Lord Shang (d. 338 BCE), and influential thinkers such as Shen Buhai (d. 337 BCE) and Shen Dao (350 275?

Of the pre-Buddhistic philosophers who rejected the Brahmanic belief, especial mention must be made of the Ajivikas* whose leading member was Makkhali Gosala. He believed in strict determinism, rejected freedom of the will, advocated an atomistic cosmology, and practised austere asceticism. Other members of the school were Purana* Kassapa, Ajita Kesamkambali, and Pakudha Kaccayana*. These intellectual rebels had their influence on Gautama as well as on Mahavira (599 527 BCE) who founded Jainism.

Although, as an expediency, they presented their Christian message in terms palatable to the Mandarin ethos, their underlying message was a radical dualism totally incompatible with Neo-Confucian modes of thinking. As a strategy, they urged the scholar-officials to rediscover their classical Confucian sensibility and reverence for the Lord-on-High or Heaven (a functional equivalent of God or the Father in Heaven). They contended that NeoConfucian thinkers, corrupted by the Mahayana * Buddhist doctrine of salvation by self-effort, alienated themselves from their primordial connectedness with the transcendent.

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