By Sarah E. McFarl, Ryan Hediger, Sarah E. McFarland
This assortment examines the query of nonhuman animal organization through moving emphasis from the human viewpoint towards that of alternative animals, exploring modes of animal resistance to human behaviors, and contemplating the methods the presence of animals refracts human notions like organization and species.
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Extra info for Animals and Agency (Human-Animal Studies)
Lighting could further hinder tendencies of objectification as the sense of voyeurism would be greatly diminished. , 238. Ibid. 57 Ibid, 239. 58 Ibid. 59 As Shamu, the orcas are reduced to caricature in much the same way Sarah E. ” See this volume. 60 Ibid. 56 whale agency 41 Together, representations of whales enacted by aquariums, as well as the very structures of captivity appear to aggressively work against recognitions of the whales as unique individual subjects with agency. This is why attentiveness to diverse expressions of whale agency is all the more important in captivity.
94. 11 There is still much not known or understood about echolocation, but marine biologists studying biosonar, like Patrick Moore, have learned that bottlenose dolphins can use echolocation to detect a wide range of variation in their environments. According to Moore, “the dolphin has an acute ability to extract information from [returning echoes]. ”13 Although there has been considerably less research conducted with orcas, also known as killer whales, they are thought to echolocate in much the same way as they have similar anatomy to the bottlenose dolphins.
Tim Ingold (London: Unwin Hyman, 1988), 112. , 112. , 116. 28 traci warkentin certain opportunities. Affordances are thus hybrid in the sense that they can emerge through performances involving mixed and disparate elements, such as a human body and a concrete wall. So conceptualized, the affordances of interactions in places like Sea World can be examined in terms of multiple, hybrid ‘whale-human-context’ networks. ” Compared to the umwelts of free-living whales, a captive umwelt is relatively impoverished and limited.