By Sanford C. Goldberg
Sanford Goldberg argues right account of the verbal exchange of information via speech has anti-individualistic implications for either epistemology and the philosophy of brain and language. partially 1 he bargains a singular argument for anti-individualism approximately brain and language, the view that the contents of one's ideas and the meanings of one's phrases rely for his or her individuation on one's social and normal setting. partially 2 he discusses the epistemic size of data verbal exchange, arguing that the epistemic features of communication-based ideals depend upon positive factors of the cognitive and linguistic acts of the subject's social friends. In acknowledging an ineliminable social size to brain, language, and the epistemic different types of data, justification, and rationality, his ebook develops basic hyperlinks among externalism within the philosophy of brain and language, at the one hand, and externalism is epistemology, at the different.
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Extra resources for Anti-Individualism: Mind and Language, Knowledge and Justification
H’s move to accept S’s testimony is informed by his reliance on the uptake of S’s perceptual system (reported in S’s testimony); only H does not regard this uptake as (locally) reliable full-stop, but rather as (locally) reliable given that the red light hypothesis can be disregarded. Here, the fact that this hypothesis can be disregarded by H but not by S is irrelevant to the (qualified) reliance H exhibits towards S’s testimony. 17 If I am correct about this, then we need to complicate our account of the sort of epistemic reliance that is at the heart of the acceptance of testimony.
Hearer H observes S’s testimony, and represents the testimony as having had p as its propositional content. So, on the basis of her implicitly regarding S as in an epistemically privileged position regarding the truth of p (that is, as having given normatively acceptable testimony), H forms the belief that p. However, even though S’s testimony was normatively acceptable (and so was reliable), H’s belief is unreliable. It turns out that the content of S’s testimony was (not p, but) q, logically independent of p.
That such a case of knowledge is correctly described as testimonial knowledge simply reflects the fact that it depends for its status as knowledge on one’s (qualified) epistemic reliance on the testimony itself. Now much more could be said in defense of my claims regarding the transmission model and the sort of epistemic reliance that grounds testimonial knowledge. 20 Instead, I propose to use this amended account of epistemic reliance, in order to discern some of the necessary conditions on testimonial knowledge.