By Oriol Bachs Ph.D., Neus Agell Ph.D. (auth.)
This e-book is set the position of calcium and calmodulin within the cellphone nucleus. Calcium, that's a big moment messenger of sign transduction pathways, may also function within the mobile nucleus. various calcium binding proteins, that are the goals of mobile calcium, were pointed out within the nucleus of many various telephone kinds. widespread between those calcium binding proteins is calmodulin, which seems to be concerned with the rules of significant nuclear services comparable to gene expression and DNA replication.
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Extra resources for Calcium and Calmodulin Function in the Cell Nucleus
Bustamante et al,31 consider that those ion channels are the nuclear pores complexes or parts of them. Cytosolic factors would be responsible for the open-shut gating of those nuclear ion channels although the mechanism is not known. The space between the two leaflets of the nuclear envelope (perinuclear space) is topologically the same as the ER lumen. Knowing that the ER is the most important Ca2+ reservoir of the cell and releases Ca2+ to the cytosol upon specific stimuli, it is logical to propose that the peri nuclear space is the Ca2+ reservoir for the Ca2+ to be released in to the nucleus also upon specific stimuli.
Cell Calcium 1994;16:239-246. 7. Hernandez-Cruz A, Sala F, Adams PR. Subcellular calcium transients visualized by confocal microscopy in a voltage-clamped vertebrate neuron. Science 1990; 247:858-862. 8. Tsunoda Y, Matsuno K, Tashiro Y. Spatial distribution and temporal change of cytoplasmic free calcium in human platelets. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1988; 156:1152-1159. 9. Tucker RW, Fay FS. Calcium gradients in single smooth-muscle ceHs revealed by the digital imaging microscope using fura-2.
22 With respect to the first point, as will be mentioned in the next section, the most probable is that the perinuclear space connected with the endoplamic reticulum (ER)-cisternae is the source of Ca2+ to be transported into the nucleus in response to specific stimuli. Ca2+ TRANSPORT INTO THE NUCLEUS AND ITS REGULATION The measures of the changes in Ca2+ content in the nucleus and in the cytosol seem to indicate that the Ca2+ could enter the nucleus: a) from the cytosol through the nuclear pores; b) from a nuclear Ca2+ reservoir, most probably the peri nuclear space and on a transporter located in the inner nuclear membrane.