By V.V Adushkin (Editor), I.V. Nemchinov (Editor)
An asteroid or comet will necessarily strike the Earth a few day, and possibly reason nice destruction. This quantity considers dangers as a result of collisions with cosmic gadgets, really in mild of contemporary investigations of affects by means of the authors. every one bankruptcy, written by means of a professional, comprises an outline of a facet and new findings within the box. insurance describes and numerically estimates the most detrimental results.
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Extra info for Catastrophic Events Caused by Cosmic Objects
This relation is based on momentum conservation. For p = 0 (stony body impacting a rocky massif) p = dp . To estimate a role of the depth of energy release use results of simulations of nuclear explosions (Arkhipov et al. 2002), which have shown that the energy of an explosion transferred to the ground increases with the increase of the depth of burial H. For H/E 1/3 < Hw = 2 · 10−3 km·Mt1/3 the efficiency of energy transfer to the ground g is about 20%. Kinetic energy of a stony impactor with Dp = 400 m and initial velocity of 17 km·s−1 is equivalent to the energy of 3 · 103 Mt TNT, so the depth dp = 0 4 km corresponds to the scaled depth H/E 1/3 = 3 · 10−2 km·Mt−1/3 .
As follows from Equation (15) the area Af and the number of casualties Nr grow with increasing E faster than according to Equation (14); that is, Af ∼ E N ∼ E instead of A ∼ E 2/3 N ∼ E 2/3 . The relative role of radiation grows if the impactor energy increases. However, the similarity for impacts larger the Tunguska can be violated. For E = 103 Mt TNT, using Equation (15), one obtains Af = 3·104 km2 and Rf = 300 km. This is substantially larger than the real radius of fire ignition area Rf at the Tunguska site.
This dust creates global contamination of the atmosphere, and larger particles fall near the impact point. The thickness of a sedimentary clay layer formed at the K/T boundary is variable. It is difficult to determine even its average thickness. 2 to 1 cm (Toon et al. 1994). 2 to 1 mm, which is close to the size of typical rain drops. They are probably remnants of melted material. 1 mm fall in air with a speed of about 50 cm·s−1 , and after being ejected to an altitude of 100 km, they fall back in about 2 days.