By S. Maatsch
In 2001 Germany and Austria grew to become the final ecu states to boost transnational controls proscribing entry to their labour markets for voters of ex-communist nations. This booklet demanding situations anti-immigration discourses to teach that given the excessive percent of expert immigrants, it's the sending instead of the receiving international locations who lose out.
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Additional info for Central and East European Migrants’ Contributions to Social Protection
The major argument of the model is that the relation between earnings at home and abroad is not proportional. 2) Where yiE is an individual worker’s net income in the home country (here: ‘East’) and yiW his income in the destination country (‘West’). The income can be decomposed into the average income y¯ in each country and the individual’s personal deviation from the average income iE and iW . Before migration, the percentage deviation from the average wage is normally distributed in the home country.
Each wave of migration had its own characteristics. By comparing the reasons for migration in the major ﬂows until the late 1980s with those of the subsequent East–West migration, this comparison of past migration waves helps to understand the economic and social characteristics of those who migrated, but also of their descendants. g. Koser and Lutz, 1998) in Europe. The differences between the recent East–West migration and previous waves is also crucial for setting the right assumptions when modelling East–West migration (Chapter 3), for assessing the current and future labour market performance of CEE immigrants in Western Europe in comparison to other immigrant groups (Chapter 5), and to understand the implications of the ‘new’ migration for the sending and receiving states (Chapter 6).
Theory, Lessons from the Past, and Latest Data Throughout the history of humanity, migration has always existed. People have been leaving their homelands for many different reasons: push factors such as famine, war, and persecution, but also pull factors like the gold rush or – more generally – the idea of ‘lands of opportunities’ (Salt, 1976, p. 80). Accordingly, there is not one, but many theories of migration spread across several academic disciplines (Bretell and Holliﬁeld, 2008; Han, 2006; Gupta and Omoniyi, 2007).