By C. Cindy Fan
China at the Move deals a brand new and extra thorough rationalization of migration, which integrates wisdom from geography, inhabitants experiences, sociology and politics; to aid us comprehend the approaches of social, political, and financial switch linked to robust migration streams so necessary to chinese language development.
Using a wide physique of analysis, transparent and tasty illustrations (maps, tables, and charts) of findings in accordance with census, survey and box information, and chosen qualitative fabric reminiscent of migrants’ narratives, this publication presents an up to date, systematic, empirically wealthy, multifaceted and energetic research of migration in China.
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Extra resources for China on the Move: Migration, the State, and the Household
The hukou system, therefore, kept rural–urban migration to a minimum. Since the mid-1980s, expanded options for rural Chinese to work in urban areas have fostered a surge in rural–urban migration (see Chapter 3). This is due to the relatively new phenomenon of renhu fenli – one’s physical separation from one’s place of registration. Specifically, rural Chinese are permitted to work in urban areas without obtaining urban hukou. Expanded markets for food and other necessities have made it possible for peasant migrants to live and work in cities.
By the 2000 census, most of the migration fields persist, depicting the continued negative effect of distance. 19 Third, the spatial patterns clearly point to the effect of uneven regional development. Most of the prominent origin provinces are relatively poor and the most prominent destination provinces are economically more developed. The largest migration flows are toward the eastern region. The only noticeable exception is Xinjiang, which has enjoyed near-average rates of economic growth as a result of its cotton industry and cross-border trade with the Central Asian Republics (Liang and Ma 2004; Loughlin and Pannell 2001; Pannell and Ma 1997).
Suffice it to say that the place of registration (or hukou location) is considered to be where one belongs and where one is eligible for state-sponsored benefits (such as housing and health care in urban areas and access to farmland in rural areas). Until the mid-1980s, it was extremely difficult for rural Chinese to survive in cities because they did not have access to the necessities of life in cities, which were available only to urban residents (those who had urban hukou). The hukou system, therefore, kept rural–urban migration to a minimum.