By L. G. Koss (auth.), Prof. Dr. med., Dr. rer. nat. Peter Pfitzer, Prof. Dr. med. E. Grundmann (eds.)
Progress in technology is frequently promoted via a brand new approach. Diagnostic cytology, even though, constructed slowly over an entire century, regularly in differentiating malignant from benign cells from quite a few tissues. The decisive step during this improvement used to be the extensive research of 1 neighborhood ization by means of Papanicolaou: the appliance of cytology for screening within the box of gynecologic oncology made it an said procedure. as a result, fabrics inves tigated ahead of have been proven back on a bigger scale and new ones have been incorporated into this system. the potential of a wide-range software of this diag nostic technique, which consists of a low threat for the sufferer and is within your budget, attracted the experts of many fields. one of many difficulties which has resulted is the coordination of educating and caliber insurance for a wide crew of individuals from various fields and with varied pursuits and whose event in morphology varies. during this quantity normal difficulties of cytology are dis stubborn, as is the query "who is a scientific cytologist?" schooling and coaching are the subjects of the contributions by means of Coleman, Holzner, Jenny, Koss and Muller, conceal ing the location within the ecu neighborhood, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and america. a distinct contribu tion via Lange matters the placement of cytotechnologists, paramedicals very important for cytologic screening programs.
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Additional resources for Current Status of Diagnostic Cytology
1989). If immunocytochemical incubations are performed within 2-3 days, excellent reactions can be achieved. Methyl green has been recommended as a counterstain since it stains only nuclei. The nuclear staining can be removed by a green filter when black and white photographs are taken for publication (Osamura et al. 1986). Storage of Specimens Unstained smears can be kept for several hours in Delaunay's solution or in xylene without evident loss of immunoreactivity. This is only advisable if all slides contain enough diagnostic cells.
The paraffin blocks are easy to store (Kung et al. 1990). Several major disadvantages, however, stand against it: 1. The main disadvantage is that this technique is only applicable to material containing a sufficient number of the relevant cells. If an effusion contains only a small portion of diagnostic cells, the chance of detecting them in the sections of the cell block is poor, whereas they would not be missed in the Papanicolaou-stained smear. 2. The nuclear details are not as brilliantly preserved as in the acetone- or alcohol-fixed Papanicolaou smears.
Although these techniques are highly specific, they lack sensitivity and nowadays are rarely used. At present the only means of accurately determining the specific HPV type is to hybridise the DNA extracted from the tissue under investigation using virus specific probes. The hybridisation techniques in current use include Southern blotting, filter in situ hybridisation (FISH), dot blot/slot blot techniques, polymerase chain reaction (peR) and in situ hybridisation. V. Coleman Table 1. Prevalence of HPV in normal female genital tract Reference Population studied Method Prevalence HPVDNA (%) De Villiers et al.