By Yaacov Ro'i
This e-book is dedicated to the learn and research of the clients for democracy one of the Muslim ethnicities of the Commonwealth of autonomous States (CIS), either those who have bought complete independence and people closing in the Russian Federation. the 19 Western lecturers and students from the Muslim international locations and areas of the CIS who give a contribution to this quantity view the institution of democratic associations during this area within the context of a large and complicated diversity of impacts, exceptionally the Russian/Soviet political legacy; local ethnic political tradition and culture; the Islamic religion; and the starting to be polarity among Western civilization and the Muslim global.
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Extra resources for Democracy and Pluralism in Muslim Eurasia (Cummings Center Series)
Two systems of law existed in Dagestan before Russia finally conquered the country — the adat (customary law) and Islamic religious law, the Shari‘a. Both systems are comprehensive and egalitarian in that they cover all aspects of life and apply equally to each and every member of the community. In spite of the Naqshbandiyya’s attempts to eradicate the adat and replace it exclusively with the Shari‘a, the two systems continued to exist side by side. Jama‘ats generally endeavoured to preserve their own adat (in many cases by recording it in writing) and to enforce obedience to it.
A claimant to the post of khan needed to receive official recognition from the qurultay. No formal rules defined the assembly’s composition but in accordance with tradition only the aristocracy, as representatives of the clans, had a deciding vote in a khan’s election — all adult male nomads having the right to be present. Common people also attended the qurultay out of curiosity or as part of the personal retinue of sultans, biys, batyrs and other leading figures. When Abylai was proclaimed khan in 1772, as many as 70,000 were present.
One example out of many is Lema Usmanov, Nepokorennaia Chechnia (Moscow, 1997), pp. 60–5. The best study of these communities is Mamaikhan Aglarov, Sel’skaia obshchina v Nagornom Dagestane v XVII – nachalo XIX v. (Moscow: Nauka, 1988). For a short description in English, see Anna Zelkina, In Quest for God and Freedom. Sufi Responses to the Russian Advance in the Northern Caucasus (London: C. Hurst, 1999), pp. 14–20. Namely the jama‘at of Tash in Antl-Ratl (literally, ‘the Seven Lands’ — see note 6).